Kudurru was a type of stone document used as boundary stones and as records of land grants to vassals by the Kassites in ancient Babylonia between the 16th and 12th centuries BCE. The word is Akkadian for «frontier» or «boundary» (cf. Hebrew: גדר gader, fence, boundary; Arabic: جدر jadr, جدار jidar ‘wall’; pl. جدور judūr). The kudurrus are the only surviving artworks for the period of Kassite rule in Babylonia with examples kept in the Louvre, the British Museum, and the National Museum of Iraq.
The kudurrus recorded the land granted by the king to his vassals as a record of his decision. The original kudurru would be stored in a temple while the person granted the land would be given a clay copy to use as a boundary stone to confirm legal ownership.
The kudurrus would contain symbolic images of the deities who were protecting the contract, the contract, and the divine curse that would be placed on a person who broke the contract. Some kudurrus also contained an image of the king who granted the land. As they contained a great deal of images as well as a contract, kudurrus were engraved on large slabs of stone.
List of kudurrus
Kassite-era kudurrus, in approximate chronological order:
- Enlil-bānī land grant kudurru
- Nazimaruttaš kudurru stone
- Kudurru of Kaštiliašu
- Tablet of Akaptaḫa, an entitlement narû, or «stele», of a similar character
- Land grant to Ḫunnubat-Nanaya kudurru
- Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina I by Meli-Shipak II
- Estate of Takil-ana-ilīšu kudurru
- Land grant to Ḫasardu kudurru
- Stele of Meli-Šipak
- Land grant to Marduk-zākir-šumi kudurru
- Land grant to Munnabittu kudurru
- Kudurru of Gula
- Kudurru for Ritti-Marduk
- Eanna-shum-iddina kudurru
- Marduk-nadin-ahhe kudurru
- Sun God Tablet
- Marduk-zakir-šumi I kudurru
- Marduk-apal-iddina II kudurru